The Peloponnesian War in Greece lasted for over twenty years, 431 – 404 B.C. The war was between the city states of Athens and Sparta. The eventual victor was Sparta. Continue reading
Plato, in his work The Republic, sets forth the ideal of a perfect monarch. The ideal philosopher king possessed the ability to philosophize on matters of the state. As Plato writes, “A king who must philosophize; a philosopher who must rule.” These kings also knew how to wisely mete out justice. Plato says that the philosophers have access to the true ideas outside the world of form. Having access to this, a philosopher king can rule wisely, efficiently and for the benefit of the people.
Sparta was a city state in Greece that rose to power in the 10th century B.C. In 650 B.C. it became the leading military power in Greece, which was reflected in their victory over Athens in the Peloponnesian War. Continue reading
Relative truth was the cause of disagreement between Socrates, a fifth century philosopher, and the Sophists, the proponents of relative truth. The Sophists taught relative truth to the youth; Socrates did not believe in this. Relative truth is when there are no common standards. All actions, morals, ethics and judgments are based upon personal belief and opinion. This is what Socrates combatted.
The Cyclops mentioned in Hesiod’s Theogony and Homer’s Odyssey were one-eyed giants who came from the god Uranus and goddess Gaia. Continue reading