I am going to discuss four different revolutions, or attempts at revolution, during the year 1848.
The French revolution of 1848 began under the reign of King Louis-Philippe. It began because the government had banned public political meetings of more than twenty people. The people got around this law by having banquets at which they would talk about politics. When the government found out and attempted to prevent such a banquet, revolts broke out. With the revolution upon him Louis-Philippe left the throne and fled France.
The Second Republic of France was then established as the government. Socialists and liberals* worked side by side in this new republic. However, the liberals wanted to get rid of the socialists and therefore gave them useless jobs to keep them busy. Continue reading
The Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) brought a marked change in European society with several developments. These were mainly the change from hand production to machine production and the change in focus from producing goods for those who could afford them, to producing goods for the average person (mass production for mass consumption).
The Spinning Jenny
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain, although it would later spread throughout the Western world. On the eve of the revolution the textile industry was based on the entrepreneur-craftsman relationship. The wool products would be made in the homes of the craftsman and then given to the entrepreneurs to sell. However, in 1764 James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny. This was a mechanized cotton spinner, which made production more efficient. The process was then taken over by the factories.
Savery’s Steam Engine
The steam engine was a tremendous invention. It was first used in industrialization by Thomas Savery in 1698. From there, it became the primary source of power for factories around Europe.
The Standard-of-Living debate was Continue reading